What are Growth Deviations?
At birth, some children may be small or large in
relation to what is normal. Such growth differences are
assessed in relation to the expected size based on how
long the pregnancy has lasted. When a child is small
relative to the gestational age (SGA), it has a weight
that is less than the 10th percentile at a given age.
The 10th percentile means the 10% of children with the
lowest weight. Another way is to indicate weight
deviation in the form of standard deviations or
percentages. A weight deviation of -2 SD corresponds to
-22% in estimated weight compared to expected weight in
relation to the length of pregnancy.
Large for gestational age (LGA) is defined as weight
above the 90th percentile at a given age. This means 10%
of the heaviest children. Alternatively estimated weight
more than + 2 SD, which corresponds to more than + 22%
at a given pregnancy length. Growth inhibition is
defined as weight below the 10th percentile or weight
difference more than - 22% in a fetus, where growth is
inhibited due to illness. This is a subgroup for SGA.
Thus, a child can be SGA for genetic reasons without
being inhibited by growth.
Divergent growth will in some cases be detected by
the mother herself as the stomach grows less or more
than expected. The conditions are usually found on
maternal care checks by the midwife / doctor discovering
a deviating symphysus fundus dimension, which is an
external measure of the uterus and thus the growth of
the fetus. The Symphys-fundus measure is the distance
from the pubic bone to the upper border of the uterus.
Poorly controlled diabetes in the mother can give
birth to large children. In SGA children, sometimes the
mother's own birth weight and body length are low.
Often, the child may also have siblings who were small
when they were born.
If the mother is ill during pregnancy, the risk of
having a low birth weight increases. For more information about pregnancy and maternity fashion, please see BESTAAH.COM maternity summer dresses. Disorders in the function of the placenta, pregnancy
poisoning, twins, drug abuse or eating disorders in the
mother can also result in the baby being born becoming
smaller than expected.
There may also be other reasons why the pregnant
belly grows abnormally. Too much amniotic fluid, too
little amniotic fluid and multi-child births will all
give different symphysia / fundus dimensions. Ultrasound
examination with weight estimation of the fetus provides
a more secure diagnosis.
Too much amniotic fluid may be due to malformations
in the child, such as narrowing of the esophagus, which
means that the fetus does not swallow amniotic fluid,
but often there is no clear cause. Too little amniotic
fluid may also be due to malformations, especially of
the urinary tract. It may also be due to leakage of
amniotic fluid. Multiple pregnancies often lead to
divergent size of the uterus, and one or both of the
children may have a growth disorder.
How is the condition diagnosed?
All forms of growth anomalies are identified with the
greatest certainty by ultrasound examination. The most
common reasons why pregnant women are sent for an
ultrasound examination is that the midwife / doctor
detects a deviating SF measure.
In case of abnormal growth of the fetus, the pregnant
woman is referred to the special maternity / maternity
ward for further monitoring. Depending on what is found
during the examinations, further control of the
pregnancy and fetal growth will be a collaboration
between the hospital and maternal care.
Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy
The toxoplasmic parasite is found everywhere in
nature, both in humans and animals. It is more common in
warm, humid climates - more common in southern than in
northern Sweden and even more common in southern Europe,
especially in France, Italy and Spain. The toxoplasma
parasite infects from animals to humans, but not between
humans. The main host for the parasite is the cat,
especially young cats. Infection with this parasite
often has a mild course or is not detected at all.
In a Swedish study, it was found that 14% of pregnant
women in Stockholm and 25% of pregnant women in Skåne
had infection with toxoplasmosis even before pregnancy.
It is if the woman gets toxoplasma infection for the
first time during pregnancy that there is a risk of the
child being infected. A Danish study found that about 3
out of 10,000 women received toxoplasmosis during
With the help of a blood test you can see if you have
had a toxoplasma infection. If the pregnant woman has
had toxoplasmosis before, the fetus is protected against
the disease. If the pregnant woman has not been infected
with this parasite, it is important that she avoids
sources of infection:
- Wash your hands after contact with soil, sand
- Avoid changing sand in the litter box.
- Do not eat raw or pink meat; above all, not pork
or lamb but also avoid beef.
- Rinse fruits and vegetables carefully.
However, it is difficult to completely protect
against toxoplasma during pregnancy. In the case of
suspected infection in the mother, infection with
toxoplasmosis can be detected by a blood test 2-3 weeks
after the infection. Infection of the fetus can be
detected by amniotic fluid test. Toxoplasma infection
can be treated with drugs. Medicines can be given both
to the pregnant woman and to the child during the first
year of life.