What is pregnancy poisoning, what causes the disease and
how is it going?
What is Pregnancy Poisoning?
Pregnancy poisoning or pre-eclampsia is a condition
in which the pregnant woman, due to illness in the
placenta, gets elevated blood pressure and protein leaks
into the urine. Often swelling (water) is also seen in
the legs, and some may have disorders in the blood's
ability to survive.
Pregnancy poisoning can cause symptoms from most of
the body's organs, but the pregnant woman can also be
completely trouble free - especially at the beginning of
the procedure. The most common symptoms are headache,
eye symptoms, nausea or stomach pain. Edema (swelling)
is not always present.
Pregnancy poisoning occurs after week 20 during
pregnancy, with an increasing incidence until birth.
Pre-eclampsia can develop into eclampsia (in about 1%),
which is characterized by headaches, anxiety, visual
disturbances, irritability, drowsiness and sparse water
throwing. For more information about pregnancy and maternity fashion, please see BESTAAH.COM maternity pencil skirts. When cramps occur, it has pregnant eclampsia.
Pregnancy poisoning occurs in about 3% of all
pregnancies. Every year, only 5 cases of eclampsia are
recorded in Sweden per 10,000 births - that is, about
1-2% of those with eclampsia develop eclampsia.
Pregnancy poisoning is six to eight times more common in
first-time pregnancies than among women who have given
It is known today that it is the failure of the
placenta that causes the symptoms, but it is not yet
known what is the direct reason why the placenta's
function is not working properly.
The blood vessels in the placenta are changed, and
this leads to the placenta and the fetus receiving less
blood supply than they really should have. The placenta
can, due to decreased blood supply and other unknown
causes, probably secrete some substances that cause
small blood vessels to contract throughout the body. The
result is a placenta with low blood flow along with high
blood pressure and impaired kidney function.
Disposable factors for the development of pregnancy
poisoning include hypertension, first-degree pregnancy,
chronic kidney disease, multiple pregnancy, diabetes,
fetal disease or connective tissue disease. The
condition can also be hereditary. The risk of pregnancy
poisoning increases significantly during pregnancy in a
woman who has previously had pregnancy poisoning.
Daughters of mothers who have had eclampsia
(seizures) are 6-7 times more likely to have eclampsia
than the average.
Some of the women will be symptom-free at the time of
diagnosis, while others may have signs of severe
pregnancy poisoning. If the doctor detects high blood
pressure and protein in the urine, it has pregnant
pregnancy poisoning. Blood samples such as blood status,
platelets and uric acid are taken. Urine samples are
also taken and examined to detect possible kidney
The diagnosis is made by blood pressure measurement:
If the overpressure (systolic blood pressure) is above
140 mmHg or the negative pressure is above 90 mmHg - at
two different measurements with at least four hour
intervals - and at the same time protein is detected in
the urine, there is pregnancy poisoning.
In 3-4% of women with pregnancy poisoning, what is
known as HELLP syndrome (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver
enzymes, Low Platelet count) occurs. It is a condition
characterized by pain in the upper abdomen or under the
right rib, sometimes nausea and vomiting, impaired liver
function and disorders of the blood cells. HELLP is
associated with an increased risk of complications.
Treatment of pregnancy poisoning is a specialist
task. Birth is the only event that causes pregnancy
poisoning to pass. During pregnancy, mild degrees of
pregnancy poisoning can be treated with rest at home and
frequent checks in hospitals. In case of increasing
blood pressure or increased protein excretion in the
urine, you must be hospitalized for initiating blood
pressure treatment with drugs. In the case of eclampsia
or HELLP syndrome, delivery should take place as soon as
Pregnant women who develop elevated blood pressure or
pregnancy poisoning should be checked frequently, at
least once or twice a week.
You must have rest and rest, and you must be on sick
leave, as even moderately physically demanding work
seems to increase the risk of worsening of pregnancy
poisoning. Bedding is not recommended, but it can be
good to lie down and rest a few times during the day.
You have to stop smoking. Smoking combined with high
blood pressure and vascular damage are important risk
factors for premature discharge of the placenta and
Birth before the calculated date
If there are signs of severe pregnancy poisoning,
doctors will start the delivery early. If the birth
occurs before the 32nd-33rd completed pregnancy week,
cortisone pretreatment is given for the baby's lungs to
mature faster. If the condition is stable, vaginal
delivery is preferable to caesarean section to avoid
further deterioration of the condition. If necessary,
you are given medication to prevent seizures and control
blood pressure during labor.
How is the process?
The course of the disease is difficult to predict,
and in some cases the condition can deteriorate rapidly.
Close controls are therefore important.
Blood pressure usually normalizes a few hours after
birth, but it can be elevated up to 2-4 weeks.
In most cases, pregnancy poisoning is
straightforward, but there is an increased risk of
reduced fetal growth and premature birth. The rare
conditions HELLP and eclampsia are more serious
complications that require intensive care in hospitals.
Under these conditions, there is an increased risk of
fatal outcome for mother and child.
Pregnancy poisoning without complications does not
cause long-term damage to the mother. In most cases, the
fetus also does not suffer severe injuries. However, as
mentioned, growth inhibition of the fetus may be a
result of pregnancy poisoning.
If blood pressure becomes normal after childbirth,
there will be a low risk (5%) of first-born infants for
the development of pregnancy poisoning in a new
pregnancy. If pregnancy poisoning occurs before the 30th
week of firstborns, the risk of pregnancy poisoning in
subsequent pregnancies can be as high as 40%.
Among women who have had pregnancy poisoning, there
is an increased risk of developing persistently elevated
blood pressure, which must be treated with blood
pressure medication in the same way as others with high
There is currently no well-established measure that
can prevent pregnancy poisoning.
Pregnancy poisoning and later cardiovascular disease
New research shows that women who have had pregnancy
poisoning are at increased risk for cardiovascular
disease later in life. It is therefore important that
you, together with your doctor, agree on a control
schedule 3–6 months after birth. At that time, an
assessment of your risk of cardiovascular disease should
For this reason, women who have had pregnancy
poisoning should ensure a healthy diet, avoid overweight
and exercise regular physical activity.