Repeated spontaneous abortions (habitual abortion) are
defined as three or more miscarriages in a row. This
affects about 1% of all couples, while 25-50% of all
couples experience one or more occasional miscarriages.
What are repeated spontaneous abortions?
Miscarriage is the most common complication during
pregnancy. It means loss of pregnancy without external
intervention before the fetus has reached viability. The
term therefore covers all miscarriages from the time of
conception up to and including 22 weeks of gestation.
There are two main types of miscarriage: sporadic and
repeated. Habitual abortion is defined as three or more
Although 15% of all pregnancies found to end in
miscarriage, the total number is estimated to be almost
50%. The majority of undetected miscarriages occur so
early in pregnancy that you have not yet been told that
you are pregnant. For more information about pregnancy and maternity fashion, please see BESTAAH.COM maternity dresses. Habitual abortion affects about 1% of
all couples, while 25-50% of all couples experience one
or more occasional miscarriages.
Although there are no figures, it is believed that
the incidence of recurrent miscarriage has increased, as
the number of children born by mothers over 35 has
doubled over the past 20 years and the age of the mother
is a strong risk factor for miscarriage.
We do not know for sure what causes some women to
have repeated miscarriages. Experts suspect that the
most important explanations are changes in the genetic
material (gene mutations and chromosome abnormalities),
physical defects, infections, hormonal defects or
Chromosomal abnormalities are the leading cause of
miscarriage before 10 weeks of pregnancy. At least
50-60% of all miscarriages are associated with
chromosome abnormalities. It is also debated whether
malformations in the mother's uterus or muscle nodes in
the uterus may at any time be the cause. Miscarriage,
which occurs in the middle third of pregnancy, may be
due to a weakened cervix, unable to withstand the
pressure of a growing fetus. The bacterial vaginosis
condition is a risk factor for late miscarriages or
premature babies, but the condition does not appear to
be the cause of repeated miscarriages. Polycystic
ovarian syndrome can in some cases contribute to
In recent years, researchers have become aware that
changes in the coagulation system appear to be
significant (antiphospholipid syndrome and thrombophilic
disorders, including Factor V Leiden mutation). Almost
one in five women with repeated miscarriages have
disorders in the coagulation system and it turns out
that among untreated women with these disorders, the
risk of miscarriage is about 90%.
Known predisposing factors for miscarriage are
smoking, alcohol, coffee (more than 3 cups per day) and
obesity. The significance of these factors is likely to
What is the difference between sporadic and
Several observations indicate that recurrent
miscarriages are a condition of their own, which differs
from occasional miscarriages. Typical of women with
repeated miscarriages are:
- That the risk of miscarriage increases with the
number of previous miscarriages.
- That the incidence of miscarriage (1%) is much
higher than can be expected from a pure coincidence.
- In contrast to sporadic miscarriages, repeated
miscarriages seem to occur, even though the fetus
has normal chromosomes.
Even if you have three miscarriages in succession,
there is a 35% chance that this has happened by pure
chance, and there is a 75% chance that the next
pregnancy will proceed normally.
Miscarriage can lead to mental health problems and
such problems during pregnancy appear to increase the
risk of a new miscarriage. Research suggests that
psychological support in early pregnancy can reduce the
risk of new miscarriages in those with unexplained
It remains unclear whether drug treatment has any
place in the treatment of women without underlying
disease. Several types of drugs have been tried, but
none of them have so far proved particularly useful.
If changes in the coagulation system can be detected
(for example, antiphospholipid syndrome or thrombophilia),
it has become more common among obstetricians to
recommend prophylactic treatment with low-dose
acetylsalicylic acid and syringes with
low-molecular-weight heparin until about week 37 of
pregnancy. Such treatment is done by a specialist in the